The reason equity capital has a higher cost than other sources of funding in our model is due to asymmetric information and information dilution costs as in Myers and Majluf (1984). That is, when a bank decides to raise additional equity through a seasoned offer, the market tends to undervalue the issue for the better banks. But because it is the better banks that drive the decision whether to raise equity, the overall effect on all banks’ equity issues (whether good or bad) is to reduce the amount of equity raised relative to the full information optimum. Thus, because of information asymmetries about the true value of bank assets, there is an endogenous cost of equity and, by extension, an endogenous cost of bank lending.
Definitions of corporate governance vary widely. They tend to fall into two categories. The first set of definitions concerns itself with a set of behavioral patterns: that is, the actual behavior of corporations, in terms of such measures as performance, efficiency, growth, financial structure, and treatment of shareholders and other stakeholders. The second set concerns itself with the normative