Organizational cultures are neither uniform nor static. They evolve over time, and so it seems reasonable to posit that all cultural systems will exhibit continuous, incremental changes punctuated on occasion by more episodic, radical change (Watzlawick et al., 1974; Weick and Quinn, 1999). Mergers and acquisitions represent sudden and major change and generate a great deal of uncertainty (Davy et al., 1988). How change occurs within organizations will be influenced by the fact that cultures are underpinned by deep assumptions that are patterned and shared (Schein, 1992). Sathe and Davidson (2000) suggest that evidence clearly supports the fact that culture change consists of
Long before the Portuguese began sailing along the West African coast in the 15th century, the kingdoms of western Sudan were sources of gold that formed the basis for extensive trade routes across the Sahara, throughout north Africa, and even linking Africa
Nigeria is Africa’s biggest oil producer and among the biggest in the world but most of its people subsist on less than $2 a day. The oil is produced in the south-east and some militant groups there want to keep a greater share of the wealth which comes from under their feet. Attacks by militants on oil installations led to a sharp fall in Nigeria’s output during the last decade. But in 2010, a government amnesty led thousands of fighters to lay down their weapons.
The Maasai people are a large pastoral community living along the Great Rift Valley of Kenya and Tanzania. While their exact origins are unknown, they are thought to be related to the Nilotes of the Nile region, and the Hamites of northern Africa. Historians believe that the Maasai migrated south from North Africa along the Nile into East Africa in the fifteenth century.
It is estimated that there are about 500,000 Maasai living in both Tanzania and Kenya, as accurate census figures are difficult to obtain. The Maasai occupy an area covering approximately 160,000 square kilometers, which is generally known as Maasailand. The Maasai homeland is divided into about 12 geographical sections, each of which has its own dialect, ceremonies and leadership.
Tunisia swore in a new interim president on the 15 January 2011 while struggling to contain looting, deadly prison riots and chaos in the streets.
The unrest came after President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was swept from power on Friday following a month of street protests over corruption, a lack of jobs and clampdowns on civil liberties.