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The Chemistry of Perfume

perfume magic

perfume magic

Perfume is a mixture of fragrant, essential oils and aroma compounds, a fixative, and alcohol. It is used to give parts of the human body and sometimes other objects a long-lasting and pleasant smell.

The essential oils are obtained by distillation of flowers, plants, and grasses, such as orange blossom and roses. Extraction by enfleurage is used if distillation is not possible, for example in the case of Jasmin Absolute. Enfleurage is basically extraction by absorption of aroma materials into wax and then extracting the odorous oil with alcohol. Aromatic chemicals are also used. Fixatives, which bind the various fragrances together, include balsams, ambergris, and secretions from the scent glands of civets and musk deer (undiluted, these have

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mike

Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika

Location

Kigoma and Rukwa, Tanzania; Shaba and Kivu, Zaire; Northern, Zambia; and Burundi.

3:25-8:45S, 29:10-31:10E; 773 m above sea level.

Description

Among the chain of lakes on the bottom of the Western Great Rift Valley, Lake Tanganyika is outstanding for its extraordinary north-south extension (670 km) and depth (1,470 m). It is the second largest of African lakes, the second deepest (next to L. Baikal) and the longest lake of the world. Its very ancient origin, only rivalled by such old lakes as Baikal, and a

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mike

Multi-User Touch-Screen Microscope

Snow crystals as seen under microscope

Snow crystals as seen under microscope

Finnish researchers have created an innovative new microscope that responds to hand and finger gestures on a giant touch screen.

The ‘multitouch microscope’ is the fruit of collaboration between researchers from the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), and the Finnish company Multitouch Ltd, who specialise in professional multitouch displays and software platforms that support multi-user environments.

The microscope works like a giant interactive touch screen and can be operated by multiple users, bringing new opportunities to teaching and research.

‘The giant size, minimum 46 inch screen looks somewhat like an iPad on steroids,’ says researcher Johan Lundin, one of the developers of the microscope. ‘The sample viewing experience is like a combination of Google Maps and the user interface from the movie Minority Report.’

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mike

Republic of Burundi

Market in Burundi

Market in Burundi

Burundi is a country in east-central Africa. Burundi or Republic of Burundi is a small, landlocked nation in East-Central Africa. It lies just south of the Equator and is bordered by Rwanda, Tanzania, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The area is 10,747 square miles (27,834 km 2)—slightly larger than that of Massachusetts.

Most of Burundi occupies a hilly plateau some 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 m) above sea level. In the west are mountains with peaks up to about 8,800 feet (2,680 m). The western slopes of the mountains drop sharply into a major branch of Africa’s Great Rift Valley, in which lies Lake Tanganyika. The Ruvironza River is the southernmost souce of the Nile.

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mike

Libya Revolution 2011

Libya's Revolution 2011

Libya's Revolution 2011

What began in Tunisia is no longer containable, as revolution sweeps through the Middle East, challenging whatever government lies in its path — including that of Colonell Moammar Gadhafi, or the “mad dog,” as President Ronald Reagan once called him.

Protests in Libya erupted on February 15 following the arrest of Fathi Terbii, a human rights attorney who represented the “relatives of more than 1,000 prisoners allegedly massacred by security forces in Tripoli’s Abu Salim jail in 1996,” the BBC reported.

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mike