Gender, Competitiveness and Career Choices

Gender differences in education and labor market outcomes, though greatly reduced, have remained ubiquitous. To understand gender differences in these outcomes, psychological attributes are commonly discussed as potential explanations. While the last decade saw a flurry of laboratory research documenting gender differences in psychological attributes, there has been no satisfactory direct evidence linking them to education and labor market outcomes. To address this gap, this paper examines how education is associated with a measure of competitiveness, which is an attribute for which large gender differences in the laboratory have been widely documented (see Croson and Gneezy, 2009 and Niederle and Vesterlund, 2011). Through in-class experiments we collected data on the competitiveness of high school students which we merged with information about their subsequent education choices. With this data we demonstrate that competitiveness significantly correlates Continue reading

Gender, Political Ambition, and the Initial Decision to Run for Office

Since the early 1980s, U.S. gender politics scholars have produced an impressive and expanding body of work that attempts to explore the role gender plays in the electoral system. Much of this work has been motivated by the underlying premise that a government dominated by male elected officials is biased against the election of women and, accordingly, does not fairly represent the public, particularly the interests of women. This notion has been supported by research that finds that the representation of women’s interests requires a greater inclusion of women Continue reading

Emerging Consumer Trends Create New Opportunities for Businesses

Innovative market positioning generally emerges in response to new customer groups, changing consumption needs, societal shifts, new technologies, emerging distribution channels or innovative production capabilities. Businesses can take advantage of new trends and develop unique value propositions by identifying and targeting groups of consumers whom their competitors may overlook. The objective of this report was to highlight some emerging consumer trends to help SME s seize these opportunities. Keep in mind that not all trends can or should be pursued at the same time. In some cases, the decision to adopt them may require a so-called “straddling strategy,” where a company simultaneously competes on dual fronts. This could erode a company’s unique value proposition and affect profitability. It’s a situation that often occurs when established companies try to adapt emerging business models to incompatible core activities. Continue reading

The EU Hairdressing Sector

The hairdressing sector in Europe employs more than one million people who work across about 400,000 hairdressing salons and receive some 350 million potential customers. Hairdressing (and barbering) services, together with beauty treatment, form the personal services sector (1).

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Evolutionary Theories of Emotion

EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES OF EMOTION

Although numerous adaptive-evolutionary treatments of emotion have emerged over the years (e.g., Ekman & Davidson, 1994; Plutchik, 1994), an evolutionary-psychological approach distinguishes itself from other evolutionary approaches by adopting an explicitly adaptationist perspective (Barkow, Cosmides, & Tooby, 1992). An adaptationist perspective is guided by the simple assumption that the mind is comprised of many mental adaptations, each of which is the product of natural and sexual selection operating over many generations during the course of human evolution (Buss, Haselton, Shackelford, Bleske, & Wakefield, 1999).

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